The most astonishing and renowned philosopher, teacher, and political economist are known by his identical names Kautilya and Vishnugupta is Chanakya. Concerning his notorious assistance and guidance arise the Maurya dynasty presided by Chandra Gupta Maurya. Chanakya was expected to lead rich and royal life acknowledged by scholars and his unusual canine teeth pleaded the fortune by the fore coming years. The scholar was born to the poor couple who came from the takhasila clan of Brahmin in the village named chanaka of the Golla region. He was a scholar in three Vedas and well versed in sheer politics and also was the author of the familiar Arthasasthra that is still being the holy book of Indian politics. Chanakya is well-groomed as a perfect trainer for political science.
Rivalry clashes appear denying that Chanakya, Kautilya, and Vishnugupta are three different people but not the same. And the legend denotes that the classic Arthasasthra points out its author to Vishnugupta that is completely different from Chanakya. Another version of the bookmarks Vishnugupta seemed to be the author of the book denying Chanakya to be the one. Leaving behind all the rumors and rivalries, everyone believes that Chanakya legend and follows his principles and ethics as a political leader.
An ancient Indologist Thomas R. Trautmann unleashes the hidden and forbidden scenes of Chanakya legend. According to the scholar, there exist four differing legends focusing on the lifestyle of Chanakya and the Maurya Empire. Though differs in minute logics each legend score portraying the life history of Kautilya. The following are the four legends narrating the life history of Kautilya.
- Buddhist version
- Jain version
- Kashmiri version
- Vishakhadutta’s version
Concerning the above four versions, the Chanakya legend is summarized interestingly. Probably the great scholar believed lived in the mid 3rd and 4th century and the summary of his life thesis followed its narration in a different period. Buddhist version is one of the oldest stories of Chanakya that is established by the mid of the 5th and 6th centuries. Mahavamsa of Buddhism being as the source of information preaching the life being of Chanakya.
Buddhist version legend: This legend goes as that Chanakya been born to poor takhasila Brahmin. Chanakya was provided with unusual canines that were proven bringing fortune and royal life to him. His mother feared off the fortune teeth as her son would ignore her after fortunes meet him. Thus, to pacify his mother, Chanakya broken his teeth and believed it would have calmed down her.
Chanakya was insulted in the court of the kingdom of Dhana Nanda, a robber turned ruler, just for the case he sat on His Excellency Throne. Though he was offered with some other seats consecutively in the royal court of Dhana Nanda, Chanakya declined the offers but persist sitting on the throne. This attitude frowns the emperor and leads him to throw away Chanakya from the jury panel and even out of the court or assembly. Being insulted by the emperor, frustrated Chanakya was screwed up to take an oath that he would vanish the Nanda dynasty by cutting off the sacred thread. Enraged Chanakya wandered around the forest and plains looking for the best choice of man that he would fulfill his oath.
The right choice of human
While wandering amidst of Vinjha forest and looking for the best man for his revenge, Chanakya earned ransom of gold coins using the special and secret technique. This involves the conversion of 1 gold coin into 8 and its multiplication. In this way, Chanakya earned about 800 million gold coins and buried them in the secret place. He determined to use the coins to bring his dream comes true.
On his way to find out the right person, Chanakya found a group of boys playing in the street. One pretended to be the king followed by others to be the Ministers, robbers, soldiers and so on. Chanakya started watching the play in which the king punished the robbers to cut off the limbs which were miraculously replaced to him. Being admired at the little boy’s superpowers, he decided that this guy would be the right choice for his mission.
Reveal of identity
Once decided Chanakya reached the boy and asked of his whereabouts. The little boy named Chandra Gupta was brought up by the hunter to be his foster-father but been from the royal family. Keep learning the secret, Chanakya paid 1000 gold coins to the foster-father of Chandragupta and asked for him so that he would teach his trade.
Chanakya befriended with the Papata, son of Dhana Nanda at the time of his exile from the royal court of later. He poisoned the former against his father while his exile and escaped with the help of the secret signet ring of Papata. Chanakya believed that either Chandragupta or Papata would rather be helpful to him in fulfilling his oath.
To select the best one among the two, Chandragupta and Papata, Chanakya proclaimed a test that follows as. Once earlier Chanakya gave a ring to both the boys to wear with the woolen thread, Chanakya asked Papata to break the thread without disturbing sleeping Chandragupta. Papata failed to finish the task. Later after some time, Chanakya asked Chandragupta to do the same task. The later achieved the task by cutting off Papata’s head. At this moment, Chanakya decided to make Chandra Gupta as a powerful Emperor.
Not less than seven years Chanakya trained Chandragupta to be a great ruler. He dug the treasures of gold coins to form an army and begin invading Dhana Nanda but failed. After the brutal defeat of Chandragupta Maurya in his invasion, Chanakya set aside to learn for the root cause of defeat. By the time, both of them happen to hear the conversation between the mother and son. In which the mother being scolding her son as he keeps eating the center part of the cake rather start eating the edges. She added that her son acts like Chandra Gupta that invaded directly Pataliputra of Dhana Nanda’s capital instead of invading the villages in the borders all around.
This kindles a spark on the mind of Chanakya that he would start capturing the border villages of the Nanda dynasty initially and finally to target the Pataliputra. This time his trap worked out and captured Dhana Nanda’s throne and throw away him out of it. Chanakya made Chandragupta as the empowered king and enclave the Maurya dynasty. Being the successful kingmaker, Chanakya shuffled the inner politics and removed all the robbers in the former kingdom thereby Chandragupta Maurya became the emphasized ruler of most of the parts in India.
Chanakya was not only been the political philosopher to Chandragupta Maurya but also assisted his son Bindhusara after his throne. He led both the rulers and played an effective role in Indian politics. Meanwhile, He wrote ‘’Arthasasthra’’ that fetches all the valuable and needed information related to Indian politics. Even after the century’s years ahead, the book is being a successful description of politics and related wisdom. The book was translated in various languages, even today.
Context of rest versions:
This is the context paraphrase of the rest of the three versions that propound the life history of Chanakya. There seem modular variations in all the three versions quite interesting. However, abrupt of the overall story the legend of Chanakya is portrayed in this article. To praise the intelligence of the legend been century and a century of years ago, it is better not to rise any contradictory impulse against him. Despite controversies, he is known for his highest quotes and the truth hidden behind every single quote. Jainism, Kashmiri and Vishakhadutta’s versions are proclaimed to be a sequel of the Mahavamsa story narration but they are told in different periods.
Famous and very useful quotes of Hindu Economist Chanakya
Just like the life history, quotes of Chanakya empowered for its significance and symbolize to match the current situation. More than 50 quotes are highlighted by Kautilya that are proven more effective and meaningful, in day to day life.
- ‘’Before you start some work, always ask yourself three questions- why I m doing it, what the results might be, will I be successful. Only when you think deeply and find satisfactory answers to these questions, go ahead’’.
- ‘’Education is the best friend. An educated person is respected everywhere. Education bests the beauty and the youth’’.
- ‘’Never make friends who are above or below you in status. Such friendships will never give you any happiness’’.
- ‘’A person should not be too honest. Straight trees are cut first and honest people are screwed first’’.
- ‘’the fragrance of flowers spreads only in the direction of the wind. But the goodness of the people spreads in all directions’’.
- ‘’There is some self-interest behind every friendship. There is no friendship without self-interest. This is the bitter truth’’.
- ‘’The serpent, the king, the tiger, the stinging wasp, the small child, the dog owned by other people, and the fool: these seven ought not to be awakened from sleep’’.
- ‘’We should not fret for what is past, nor should we be anxious about the future, men of discernment deal only with the present moment’’.
- ‘’A man is born alone and dies alone, and he experiences the good and bad consequences of his karma alone, and he goes alone to the hell or the supreme abode’’.
- ‘’The life of uneducated man is as useless as the tail of the dog which neither covers its rear end nor protects it from the bites of insects’’.
- ‘’Purity of the speech, of the mind, of the senses, of a compassionate are needed by one who desires to rise to the divine platform’’.
- ‘’There is no austerity equal to a balanced mind, and there is no happiness equal to contentment; there is no disease like covetousness and no virtue like mercy’’.
- ‘’Once you started working on something, don’t be afraid of failure and don’t abandon it. People who work sincerely are happiest’’.
- ‘’Test the servant while in the discharge of his duty, a relative in difficulty, and a wife in misfortune’’.
- ‘’There is poison in the fang of the serpent, in the mouth of the fly, in the sting of the scorpion; but the wicked man is saturated with it’’.
- ‘’He who is overly attached to his family members experiences fear and sorrow, for the root of all grief is an attachment. Thus one should discard attachment to be happy’’.
- ‘’A man is great by deeds, not by birth’’.
- ‘’Do not reveal what you have thought upon doing, but by wise council keep it secret being determined to carry it into execution’’.
- ‘’The earth is supported by the power of truth; it is the power of truth that makes the sunshine and the winds blow; indeed all things rest upon truth’’.
- ‘’God doesn’t dwell in the wooden, stone or earthen idols. His abode is in our feelings, our thoughts’’.
- ‘’Treat your kid like a darling for the first five years. For the next five years, scold them. By the time they turn sixteen, treat them like a friend. Your grown-up children are your best friends’’.
- O, Wise man! Give your wealth only to the worthy and never to others. The water of the sea received by the clouds is always sweet’’.
- ‘’One whose knowledge is confirmed to books and whose wealth is in the possession of others, can use neither his knowledge nor wealth when the need for them arises’’.
- ‘’If one has a good disposition, what other virtue is needed? If a man has fame, what is the value of other ornamentation?’’.
- ‘’Even if a snake is not poisonous, it should pretend to be venomous’’.
- ‘’The happiness and peace attained by those satisfied by the nectar of spiritual tranquility are not attained by greedy persons restlessly moving here and there’’.
- ‘’Do not be very upright in your dealings for you would see by going to the forest that straight trees are cut down while the crooked ones are left standing’’.
- ‘’He who lives in our mind is near though he may actually be far away, but he who is not in our heart is far though he may be nearby’’.
- ‘’It is better to die than to preserve this life by incurring disgrace. The loss of life causes but a moment’s grief, but disgrace brings grief every day of one’s life’’.
- ‘’The wise man should restrain his senses like the crane and accomplish his purpose with due knowledge of his place, time and ability’’.
- ‘’As long as your body is healthy and under control and death is distant; try to save your soul; when death is immanent what can you do?’’.
- ‘’A good wife is one who serves her husband in the morning like the mother does, loves him like in the day like the sister does, and pleases him like a prostitute in the night’’.
Below are the general questions asked by many for Chanakya
What was Chanakya famous for?
The answer to the question will be elaborated that explains deeply how Chanakya is renowned as? The life period of Chanakya was assumed between the 3rd and 4th centuries, even such long and long years ago, the well-qualified scholar has determined the psychological thought process of a human being. It is astonishing fact that the Indian scholar assumed to be predetermined about human mind psychology and their tendencies. No exaggeration had been there how a single man can estimate the mind psychology of current human being ever before centennials ago.
Indologist groups of the current period are wondering the miraculous ability of this political legend and his preaches towards political issues. The undeniable fact is that all his quotes can follow people around the world and even today his quotes and prestigious book ‘’Arthasasthra’’ are being translated in various languages that are spoken away from India. Similarly, political legends from different parts of the world are accepting the quotes liable to apply for. With the above short narration, it is understood clearly how much Chanakya is familiar for. He was the one that abandons being the ruler rather been the kingmaker and rule under his influence, forever.
How many years did Chanakya live?
Presumably, at the beginning of this article, the life span of the great political scholar has been determined. The intelligent was born to the poor Brahmin couple belonging to the Takhasila clan and in the village named Chanaka of Golla region. As belongs to the Brahmin clan, the political philosopher was well-versed in the three Vedas and got influenced in educational views.
Few legends did out spokes that Chanakya assumed to be lived 206 years. The life span of this economic scholar was assumed between 370 and 283 BC. Rather there is a fact that Chanakya was born thirty years before the birth of Chandra Gupta Maurya and died 10 to 15 years before Asoka’s birth, though contradictory, his life span is more precious.
Who insulated Chanakya?
Dhana Nanda the ruler, emperor of Magadha was the person that insulted Chanakya. A quick review of the life of Chanakya should be revised as an explanation to the question. Again, differing versions are illustrated behind Chanakya been insulated by Dhana Nanda, the robber turned ruler. Once Chanakya went to the court of Dhana Nanda to receive the offerings yet to issue by the emperor and before the King arrival the court of assembly, Chanakya suddenly sat on the throne of ruler. Horrified out of his action, servant maid of assembly offered him various options to be seated. But ignoring all her offerings Chanakya kept seated on the throne. Infuriated about his mischievousness Chanakya was thrown out of the assembly. This act of misbehavior outraged Chanakya to arise out of anger and took an oath destroying the Nanda dynasty.
Some other interesting stories narrate that Dhana Nanda himself insulated Chanakya for his act of Mischievousness and his ugly appearances. Chanakya had an ugly outlook with a full set of teeth and crooked legs that disgusted the emperor and thrown off him out of the assembly. This set him outraged and cursed the King by cutting off his sacred thread. Chanakya decided to revenge against the King for his act of insulting him then escaped out of Kingdom by the favor of the prince Papata. The signet ring given by the prince helped Chanakya fled from the palace. He declared that the prince would ascertain him in his act of revenge as the former hatred his father, the ruler. The scenario goes in the way until the rise of Chandra Gupta Maurya as a King, majesty.
How did Chanakya die in history and who murdered him?
There exists an unrevealed plot woven in the murder of Chanakya that includes he starved himself until death.
Another version went off that Chanakya left along with Chandra Gupta to lead ascetic life as Bindhusara succeeded the throne after his father.
Last but not least another interesting version narrated by the Jain writer Hemachandra that Chanakya was made victim by Subandhu, one of the ministers of Bindhusara, to be murdered viciously.
In his intellectual plot, Subandhu intrigued Bindhusara to believe that Chanakya treacherously murdered his mother. Knowing this, Bindhusara starts hating Chanakya but unknowing the vicious plot Chanakya could not able to put up with the ruler hence exile from the palace to starve himself until death. Later Bindhusara came to know that Aacharya was not murdered by his mother but forced to do so just to rescue the unpoisoned fetus from death.
Dhurdhara was the mother of Bindhusara and the wife of Chandra Gupta happened to share the poison influenced food along with Chandra Gupta, accidentally. It was Chanakya who added poison in the food of King just for sake of immune the King from the worst poison in the world. Seemed out of knowledge of this arrangement Chandra Gupta shared his food to his carrying wife, Dhurdhara. Knowing this, Chanakya cut of the womb of the queen to save the fetus. As a result, the queen has died. Bindhusara, when he came to know the detailed illustration behind the death of his mother, was late and Chanakya killed himself. Also, the ruler punished the betrayed Minister Subandhu for his vicious plot.
Are Chanakya and Kautilya the same?
Of course! Both of them are the same and the scholar was born as Vishnugupta to the poor Brahmin couple Chanak and Chaneshwari. Later the young Brahmin named after his father’s name as Chanakya as he was killed by the orders of the King Dhana Nanda besides being prevented from rendering the funeral respects. Out of anger anxious Vishnugupta derived his father’s name and known as Chanakya, thereafter.
The intellectual scholar was the author of the holy book on economics and statecraft ‘’Arthasasthra’’ and ‘’Chanakya Neeti’’. Chanakya wrote the treatise in the pen name ‘’Kautilya’’. Hence Chanakya and Kautilya are the same but not the different individuals. There exist opinions stating that Chanakya, Kautilya, and Vishnugupta are not the same but three different persons. But these contradictory opinions are not proven true hence it is not taken into account assuming as three persons.
Even beyond the contradictions, there raises questions about whether Chanakya was married or not? Two differing answers prevail accepting the fact that he got married and also denying that he lived as Brahmachari throughout his life. It was believed that he got married to Radha Gupta and another point of view state that he intended to get married but insult led by Dhana Nanda had diverted Chanakya towards revenge rather than getting married.
In one of the great four versions, it had mentioned that Chanakya intends to marry a girl. For the cause of marriage, he visited the court of Dhana Nanda eager to receive offerings from the king. Where he met with great insult and kicked away from the assembly and due to the cause humiliation his marriage called off. Outraged Chanakya diverted to revenge after the ruler and conquer his empire. Once his marriage got called off, Chanakya lived alone kept himself bachelor and focused bringing up an empowered king defeating Dhana Nanda.
We hope this article would be useful for explaining the life history of Chanakya. The details and information of Chanakya and his dreadful plot to burry Nanda dynasty are interesting but true to the ancestral declaration. He was as honest as he could to the Maurya dynasty and been the loyal and chief advisor to Chandra Gupta and Bindhusara kings. He dedicated his whole life to the well being and entity of the nation. To design the fully-fledged state (nation), Chanakya provided a treatise named ‘’Arthasasthra’’ and the ‘’Chanakya Neeti’’. His plea for Bindhusara trust him for his honesty revealed his love for the king but unfortunately, he was not able to put up with the king because his mind was adulterated by his Minister, Subandhu. Finally, the entrusted teacher, the economist died mysteriously.